The LR04 Benthic Stack (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005) is a record of global temperature and ice sheet volume changes over the past 5.3 million years. The changes are recorded in the shells of deep-ocean single-celled organisms called foraminifera and buried in marine sediments.

Citation: Lisiecki, L. E., and M. E. Raymo (2005), A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic d18O records, Paleoceanography, 20, PA1003, doi:10.1029/2004PA001071

A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records



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